Our brain governs our interaction with our environment, manages our reactions and anticipations, harbours our dreams and visions, controls our bodily functions, and digests our experiences.  This makes it a natural organ to treat when we feel out of synchrony. 

Technological developments in the last century have enabled us to attribute behaviour patterns, sensory integration, social and cognitive function, and psychopathologies to our brain’s physiology.  Rather than relying on abstract models and theories, we can now elicit which brain area’s dysrhythmia plays a part in causing developmental issues and more.  With neurofeedback, we can train these areas in a non-invasive, enjoyable way that produces lasting positive results. 

Neurofeedback therefore has a wide variety of applications, from accelerating development to slowing neurodegeneration, and every pathology or mental health issue inbetween.  This includes mood control, anxieties, focus and planning, autism, schizophrenia, autoimmune conditions such as PoTS; concussion, TBI, stroke, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and MS, to name a few.  There are over 2,000 published research reports confirming its efficacy. 

Neurofeedback Training can effect transformational, positive changes.

Understanding how this works builds on 4 knowledge blocks.  

Click on each above or scroll down to learn:

1. Functional Brain Areas

Evolution of our understanding of brain area functions, from Versalius via Gall to Brodmann areas researched with pubmed
From Versalius via Gall to Brodmann; fMRI research of functional brain areas at 200 per year

Our brain has remained the most elusive organ in terms of our understanding of its function.  

From Versalius in the 1500s, to the phrenology promulgated by Gall and the Fowler brothers in the 19th century, attribution of functionality to different parts of the cortex was at best a soft science.  It was only when Korbinian Brodmann dissected the unfolded neocortical surface that the approach became more scientific.  Realising that the cytoarchitecture of the cortical grey matter, that is, the surface of the cortex, which had six distinct layers, was variable, Brodmann attributed delineations on this basis, giving rise to over 50 different brain areas.  

Our understanding of functional brain areas has improved substantially since EEG and fMRI in the last fifty years.  Devising psychological experiments that would put people in certain states of mind or thought, and comparing these to a ‘resting’ state, now provided hard insight into the activations of different brain areas necessary, and sufficient, to produce these conditions.  

Presently there are around 200 studies per year researching the particular functions individual Brodmann areas govern.  These provide us with neuromarkers for various behaviour patterns and mental health issues.  

With a Kaiser Neuromap we can detect these and assess vulnerabilities in a granular way.  For example, there are at least five different brain areas that can contribute to various forms of anxiety.  These include social anxiety, “what’s next” unsuredness, proneness to sensory overload, hypervigilance, and relational thinking where everything is directed at oneself.  

Neurofeedback training lets us train the identified vulnerabilities and strengthen the brain’s Default Mode Network.  This improves our sense of self, and how we synchronise with our environment.  Frictions disappear and we develop a healthy detachment, converting instincts into pro-social actions that help us integrate better and lead. 

2. EEG - ElectroEncephaloGraphy

EEG signal studied by Hans Berger in 1925 revealed alpha spindles associated with a state of relaxation, which was the birth of EEG and neurofeedback
Hans Berger in 1925 analysing EEG recordings

While it was known for some time that there is a small, measurable current on the surface of our scalp, this had been dismissed as ‘noise’.  In 1925, Hans Berger took a closer look and found rhythmic patterns in the recordings of sensors placed on the scalp.  

In particular, he noticed so-called ‘alpha spindles’, or bursts of waves with a frequency of about 10 waves per second (10Hz), primarily at the back of the head.  These were especially pronounced when the subject (in this case, his son) was in a relaxed, eyes-closed state.  

The significance of this finding was that the EEG signal, or measurement of the microVolt current on the head, was far from random, and that a particular frequency, called ‘alpha’ or c.10Hz, corresponded to a positive emotional state (relaxation).  

This gave rise to the next challenge:  could the production of this frequency pattern be trained, and would this lead to a relaxed state of mind in the subject?  

Technological advances, and persistant research, led to even more innovations:  

– recording EEG became digitised (qEEG), and we can now analyse the signal in real-time, breaking it down into activity by frequency bands, e.g. alpha, theta, gamma, delta

– we can determine relationships between various brain areas in different frequency bands, seeing how brain areas communicate with each other

– research into how these intra-brain communications change depending on state, pathology and behaviour is active, at c.200 reports per year

– the brain’s activity in a frequency band can be shown back to it, and by witholding a reward, such as the continuity of a movie we are watching, we can influence brain patterns!

3. Brain Maps

qEEG brain maps allow for a personalised approach to neurofeedback training that is effective for many mental health issues in a non-invasive, evidence-based and enjoyable manner by Daniel Webster
Brain Maps, Real-Time EEG analysis, and the Neurofeedback Process

Advances in technology facilitated the development of modern Personalised Brain Training, an advanced form of neurofeedback: 

EEG became quantitative to evolve into qEEG, meaning that 19 sensors embedded in a cap can be placed on a person’s head and simultaneously record digital EEG signals, which are processed, transformed and analysed using complex mathematical methods.  

Mapping the nineteen datasets onto the correct Brodmann area was a particular challenge (the head is not a sphere, and the individual areas have varying proportions and depths within the brain).  This was most effectively solved by David Kaiser and Barry Sterman.  A remote second place in this attempt is the LoRETA mapping, a relative B- solution. 

Finding relationships in EEG activity between different Brodmann areas was, and for some, still is, the next problem.  Again, the method devised by Kaiser and Sterman provides a reliable measure for ascertaining state-independent relationships, i.e. traits.  EEG captures a lot of data, and we are interested in relationships between brain areas that are persistent across different states of mind, or arousal / engagement.  The Kaiser Neuromap method does this. 

Finally, these relationships need to be compared to a baseline, that is, a set of persons deemed ‘ideal’, ‘normal’, ‘typical’ or worthwhile aspiring to.  There have been different approaches to this problem, ranging from extensive statistical data harvesting exercises on the one extreme (LoRETA), to the more elegant approach of keeping these numbers small (<20), and thereby quality high with low noise.  Either way, this component is subjective: whether large or small numbers, there will be a selection bias.  Choosing an ideal, which we are training towards in the next step, arguably makes this a belief system.  The brain map is born.

4. Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback process explained from qEEG brain map to real time analysis via cygnet software to produce neurofeedback for various pathologies
Brain Maps, Real-Time EEG analysis, and the Neurofeedback Process

Based on the vulnerabilities identified with a brain map, we now seek to train these areas.  When a brain area is dysrhythmic, this is usually because the cortex, at that area, is not contributing optimally, and instead letting through limbic impulses.  We look to better integrate this brain area by training its ability to convert basic, sub-cortical impulses into pro-social behaviour.  More efficient behaviour results, and this has a particular brain wave signature, or correlations between activity within and between different frequency bands.  

There are different approaches to assessing efficient cortical activity, as there are many variables and even possibly yet undiscovered brain wave relationships.  Daniel uses the most advanced protocols that improve maturity and restore optimal brain function.

Neurofeedback is the process of measuring brain activity at a particular area, analysing this in real-time, and providing the brain with non-invasive feedback.  We now wear only a few electrodes (as opposed to the full cap during the qEEG), while watching a movie of choice.  When the brain wave activity at the area we are training deviates from efficient patterns, the volume drops slightly, and temporarily (fractions of a second).  This is enough information for the preconscious mind to adapt and change the behaviour at the site we are training, so the the volume is restored.  With repetition, we can train more optimal behaviour, and this is visible as a learning curve in session, and an improved brain (re-)map. 



Neurofeedback can positively impact trajectories of children and young adults

With Neurofeedback training, we can reshape trajectories.  Unlocking someone’s true potential is transformative.  Reducing care costs, improving school performance, generating career options and expanding social options has value that eclipses the cost of neurofeedback training.  Also, neurofeedback is usually an intervention that lasts well under a year, and it is truly non-invasive and medication-free.

Daniel Webster's Neurofeedback is Unique

It’s important to note that there are various forms of neurofeedback training.  It’s not all the same.  A brain map is an important starting point, as this shows us where the issues are.  There are different ways to interpret qEEG, and brain maps vary in what they show.  The Kaiser Neuromap is the best at showing which functional brain area, or Brodmann area, is dysrhythmic.  We then need to be able to interpret this, and form an effective treatment plan.  Again, neurofeedback methods vary, and Daniel Webster’s method is the most advanced and effective.  It is also the most enjoyable, as it involves watching movies for two hours, in a one-on-one session, and the feedback is subtle, while wearing minimal sensor equipment.  It is also genuinely non-invasive, as the only feedback to the brain is through the volume changes. 

Daniel Webster offers the most advanced neurofeedback methods as home visits and intensive courses, in the UK and internationally.  We generally need 10-20 sessions, each around two hours, and can do these weekly or as an intensive, with two sessions per day for a week.  Mood, focus and behavioural issues generally get resolved in 10-20 sessions.  Structural issues, such as brain damage or neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s, MS, Parkinson’s) can take longer.

Brain Maps and Personalised Brain Training Explained

Personalised Brain Training with Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback lets us train dysrythmic brain areas. With sensors comfortably fitted to the brain areas we want to train, we detect brainwave patterns real-time while watching a movie. When these patterns are inefficient, the volume drops momentarily. This is the feedback we are giving our brain, short and instantaneously.

The brain area we are training recognises this – while our conscious mind is focussed on the movie – and adjusts its behaviour to restore the normal volume. With repetition, throughout a session, learning occurs.

Meanwhile our conscious mind is solely focussed on the movie; the training process is passive in this sense.

The drop in volume is subtle, so we continue to understand the flow of the movie. No current or electrical stimulation is fed to the brain; sensors simply read brainwaves and the feedback is purely audio-visual.

Neurofeedback is preconscious brain training aimed at enhancing our mental, emotional and spiritual health

Neurofeedback trains our Pre-Conscious Mind

Rather than engaging the conscious mind, which slows us down, we are training preconscious processes

This equips us with the ability to live in the moment and attain our potential (if we have to resort to conscious control, we are not living in the moment).

We take a holistic approach to healthy brain self-regulation, rather than categorisation or diagnosis.

Personalised Brain Training is an advanced qEEG brain map-based approach to neurofeedback training developed by the founders of the field. Taking Othmer Method / ILF training methods further, it employs Default Network Training protocols as developed by David Kaiser.

Neurofeedback is evidence-based complementary therapy with over 2000 PubMed peer-reviewed research reports

Neurofeedback is Evidence-based

Neurofeedback training is an evidence-based complementary therapy.  Its efficacy was first demonstrated some 50 years ago, and with advances in technology, training protocols have become more efficient and the feedback method – watching movies – thoroughly enjoyable. 

Neurofeedback is evidence-based.  It’s first application was discovered in 1971 when it was used to resolve intractable epilepsy. 

There are over 2,000 peer-reviewed research reports on PubMed demonstrating efficacy across a number of pathologies. 

In the US, it is an accepted complementary treatment for many challenges. 

Neurofeedback Training Sessions

Personalised Brain Training aims to optimise the cortical connectivity, as well as promoting improved thalamo-cortical connection.  Neuroplasticity, the ability of neural networks in the brain to make new connections, is an essential and continuous process that underpins our ability to learn.  With brain training, we can promote this process.  

Protocols are generally around 30-45 minutes per brain area that we train; as such, training sessions are ideally around 90-120 minutes.  This corresponds to the average length of a movie.  This is also the length of our ultradian rhythms – attention cycles that govern our day, letting us perform at more than 100% at peak, and less than this at trough – think of the lull we experience around lunchtime.  By training the brain throughout a complete cycle, we are more likely to provide the brain with a challenge at different points in its attention cycle for a more comprehensive training. 

The primary feedback mechanism in Personalised Brain Training is auditory, that is, a subtle change in volume.  The brain recognises this, preconsciously, while our conscious mind is focused on the movie, and corrects its behaviour to preserve the continuity of the watching (or listening) experience.  A secondary, visual feedback mechanism can be activated, whereby the picture size changes too, though this is optional in cases of high visual sensitivity (e.g. migraines).   

We can track progress by remapping the brain at intervals, usually after every 20 hours of training.  Ten sessions will give a good indication of responsiveness, which besides subjective feedback we can ascertain with a further remap.  With neurofeedback training, we are showing the brain a more efficient state during a session.  Upon repetition, the brain learns to adopt this new state.  The person has to then implement this new learning in their life.  Internal changes have to be externalised.  Training success depends on this ability thus results can vary.  

Neurofeedback training begins with two to three sessions per week and the frequency of training can then be adjusted to need and symptom improvements.  Intensive courses involving two or more sessions per day can also be accommodated.

Contact Daniel on +44 (0)7966 699430 or daniel@neurofeedback.io to arrange sessions.

Neurofeedback is a form of complementary therapy and should not be seen as a replacement for conventional medicine.  qEEG brain map-based neurofeedback training takes a more holistic approach to brain functioning, rather than just focusing on medical symptoms.  It is not intended as a form of diagnosis nor medical intervention nor medical advice per the disclaimer.