Famous people with schizophrenia include Lionel Aldridge, Syd Barrett, Joey Ramone, Vivian Maier, Gene Tierney, Bettie Page, John Nash

What is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia comprises a wide range of thought disorders, which ultimately affect an individual’s ability to share a reality with others.  Causes can be trauma, emotional or physical; drug use; stress; genetics.   

With neurofeedback training we aim to restore a healthy sense of self; flexibilise the social brain; and ameliorate comorbidities such as intrusive thoughts, mood disorders, focus and attention issues, paranoia and anxieties; and psychosis.  

Each person is different:  with a Kaiser Neuromap we assess individual vulnerabilities and train these with neurofeedback.  Personalised Brain Training enables the person to unfold their genius in a socially reciprocal manner.  

Neurofeedback is medication-free, non-invasive and evidence-based. 

Schizophrenia fMRI Brain shows diminished Default Mode Network Difference

In Schizophrenia, the formation of a neural basis for a ‘self’, the Default Mode Network, is impaired, as is its ability to anti-correlate with the Central Executive Network.  Key nodes of these networks are often dysrhythmic, impacting the ability to self-sooth and self-nurture.  

Thought disorders, delusions or hallucinations are signs of not engaging sufficiently with the outside world.  

Many other pathologies ensue, including trauma, mood dysregulation, sleep and focus issues, and other personality disorders are at risk of developing as the social brain breaks down. 

With neurofeedback, we aim to restore social functionality, launching the person back into a virtuous cycle of affirmation and productivity with others.

 

– Schizophrenia can develop when there is an impaired Default Mode Network, the neural basis for a ‘self’.  It is a personality disorder.

– The mind’s reward circuitry substitutes gratification gained from external social interaction with an addiction to internally generated content   

 – Conscious awareness becomes infiltrated by internally generated content, sourced from the same brain areas that control our thoughts and social brain

 – Disordered thoughts and hallucinations are not perceived as such, with 60% of sufferers in denial

– The conscious mind becomes distracted, losing functionality as sleep, focus and emotional stability are compromised – comorbidities such as ADD, OCD, bipolar depression, insomnia, anxieties ensue.   

– A negative feedback loop ensues, giving rise to episodic breakdowns

– Internal content can take on critical, negative and even third-person dynamics (intrusive/obstructive/self-critical) thoughts, especially when the person is exhausted or vulnerable. 

 – One third of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations are resistant to conventional treatment.  Neurofeedback training has been shown to result in significant improvements

 – Neurofeedback can stabilise mood, restore Default Mode Network functionality, and address comorbid disorders such as anxiety, depression / bipolarity, trauma/(C-)PTSD, ADD/ADHD, OCD and insomnia.

 – Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of Schizophrenia, such as social exclusion and/or drug use  

 – Most vulnerable to Schizophrenia are adolescents and menopausal women

Daniel Webster has extensive experience in working with Schizophrenia.  Phone +44 (0)7966 699430 or daniel@neurofeedback.io for more information on Neurofeedback for Schizophrenia

Neurofeedback London-Brighton-Manchester does not provide diagnosis nor medical interventions nor medical advice.  By engaging in neurotherapy, you confirm that you have sought medical advice and are keeping your relevant medical professional informed of therapy progress and have read and understood the disclaimer.

Hallucinations in Schizophrenia and other pathologies have been found to be linked to the dopamine system.  People who experience auditory hallucinations tend to hear what they expect.  This is often inked to intrusive, self-critical thoughts or emotions.  

Researchers have found that elevated dopamine levels can result in the person relying more on expectations, which in turn can result in hallucinations.  

In general, the process of sensory perception is an optimal combination of prior expectations and new sensory input.  If prior expectations are given to much weight in this combination process – which is constantly happening as we take in the world – perceptual distortions can occur, such as illusions and hallucinations.  Those with hallucinations and other symptoms of psychosis are known to have elevated dopamine levels, and research has now established a link.  

Hearing voices; self-critical thoughts taking on third person dimensions, are a result of mirror neurons firing even when the person is in a state of rest.  We can detect vulnerability to this with a Kaiser Neuromap, and train this accordingly with neurofeedback.  We have treated even rarer visual and tactile hallucinations this way with Personalised Brain Training.

Thalamo-cortical connections play a part in auditory hallucinations too.  

Dopamine and Hallucinations linked by researchers from Columbia University Medical Center https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180216142646.htm

One in three Schizophrenia sufferers experience pharmacology-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH);  in 30% of cases antipsychotic medication has little or no effect.  Neurofeedback training has been shown to produce significant results in this population, reducing auditory verbal hallucinations.  

Voices, delusions and hallucinations do not have to be negative in nature.  Our general sense of mental well-being has a strong influence on whether these are hostile or more manageable – even musical.  

Personalised Brain Training helps us work on our core sense of self.

Audio-Visual Hallucinations in Schizophrenia and Parkinsons are linked to elevated dopamine levels and can be managed with neurofeedback training

Schizophrenia is a manageable disorder.  There are usually a number of comorbidities, such as mood regulation, sleep issues, distractibility, anxiety / paranoia, self-harm and rage, and social anxiety.  Each of these can be addressed with neurofeedback training. 

Kaiser Neuromap – based Personalised Brain Training respects individuality and tailors a therapy approach in a holistic way.

Every Brain is individual and different, therefore Personalised Brain Training neurofeedback

Schizophrenia is a developmental disorder that affects an estimated one percent of the population.  Men are particularly prone to developing symptoms of schizophrenia in their late teens, while women are in their mid- to late twenties, and again susceptible during menopause. 

 

Schizophrenia Age and Sex Distribution

Early symptoms involve increased social withdrawal, which is accompanied by the person’s substitution of external realities with an internal storyline of their own.  While in the extreme this can manifest in a complete detachment from the environment (‘florid’ states, or catatonia), it is most often a form of ‘augmented reality’ the person is experiencing.  Still interacting with others as much as necessary, the person’s perception is overlayered with internal content. 

 

 

Let's talk about Schizophrenia: a youtube video talk between two people
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This projected imagination enlists emotions and sensory perceptions in a very ‘real’ way, and thus exceeds mere thought processes or ‘mental chatter’.  The person becomes addicted to their own internal mental content as their reward circuitry embraces this simpler path, compared to ‘earning’ such rewards in their external interactions with their environment.  

The internal imaginations become a habit to the extent that they are woven into the perceived reality – over 60% of sufferers are unaware of their condition or in active denial.  Neurologically, the brain area where thoughts and hallucinations are believed to originate recruits the same neuronal network as that used to process external auditory stimuli (reality).  Mirror neurons remain active when in a self-referential state, which can be observed with a brain map, and are an indication of influences by perspectives other than their own.  At times it becomes unable to distinguish fantasy from reality. 

Hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia are visible in spectral plots of qEEG activity

The internal content becomes no longer controllable with conscious awareness, especially when the person is in a physically exhausted or vulnerable state.  In this case, the content can take on a negative, critical, even third-person dynamic.  ‘Hearing Voices’ or  ‘sparring with Dad’ (imagined authority) are frequent manifestations of when the internal dialogue becomes hostile. Besides the effort of trying to disguise these internal processes to the outside world, the person is engaged in battling these voices, further fatiguing mind and self-esteem.

Sleep and focus deteriorate and a negative feedback cycle ensues with Insomnia, ADHD/ADD and bipolar depression frequently becoming ancillary diagnoses.  All the while, the person is having to balance their internal turmoil with external interactions necessary to ensure their physical survival.  Persistent paranoia and attribution of agency to illusions and hallucinations suffered can result in a delusion of being under constant observation and even persecution. 

 

Comorbidities in Schizophrenia and other neuro-degenerative pathologies such as Parkinsons, include depression, anxiety, sleep and focus issues and mood dysregulation

Externally, the development of schizophrenia leads to further social exclusion or a reduction in genuine emotional relationships, with both family and friends or partners.  The social brain is not engaged in a healthy way at an important stage of cortical development.  This manifests in comorbidities such as anxiety and mood disorders, and PTSD-like withdrawal.  Frustration at the growing gulf between imagined actions and the unfolding reality cause impulsive aggression, and often this is projected at immediate family members, though self-harm is a risk too.  Delinquency and ensuing incarceration further fuel symptoms and increase the likelihood of longer institutionalisation.  

Environmental influences and the safety net of friends and family, as well as support from the social system, can have massive effects on the trajectory of the disorder’s development.     

 

Introversion can lead to social exclusion and negative episodes in schizophrenia

genetic predisposition to schizophrenia can be set off by exclusion from the external environment.  Migration, that is, higher exposure to social adversity, has been found to substantially increase the risk of developing schizophrenia.  Cannabis use in adolescents has been linked to schizophrenia since the 1980s, and it’s ability to stimulate internal content generation could be one reason for the high rate of use among persons on the schizophrenia spectrum.  

Causes of Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder include migration, cannabis and substance abuse, trauma and genetics

– Schizophrenia can develop when there is an impaired Default Mode Network, the neural basis for a ‘self’.  It is a personality disorder.

– The mind’s reward circuitry substitutes gratification gained from external social interaction with an addiction to internally generated content   

 –  Conscious awareness becomes infiltrated by internally generated content, sourced from the same brain areas that control our thoughts and social brain

 – Disordered thoughts and hallucinations are not perceived as such, with 60% of sufferers in denial

– The conscious mind becomes distracted, losing functionality as sleep, focus and emotional stability are compromised – comorbidities such as ADD, OCD, bipolar depression, insomnia ensue.   

– A negative feedback loop ensues, giving rise to episodic breakdowns

– Internal content can take on critical, negative and even third-person dynamics, especially when the person is exhausted or vulnerable. 

 – One third of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations are resistant to conventional treatment.  Neurofeedback training has been shown to result in significant improvements

– Neurofeedback can stabilise mood, restore Default Mode Network functionality, and address comorbid disorders such as anxiety, depression / bipolarity, trauma/(C-)PTSD, ADD/ADHD, OCD and insomnia.

– Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of Schizophrenia, such as social exclusion and/or drug use  

– Most vulnerable to Schizophrenia are adolescents and menopausal women

Daniel Webster has extensive experience in working with Schizophrenia.  Phone +44 (0)7966 699430 or daniel@neurofeedback.io for more information on Neurofeedback for Schizophrenia

Neurofeedback London-Brighton-Manchester does not provide diagnosis nor medical interventions nor medical advice.  By engaging in neurotherapy, you confirm that you have sought medical advice and are keeping your relevant medical professional informed of therapy progress and have read and understood the disclaimer.

Schizophrenia is a Spectrum Disorder

Schizophrenia is a spectrum disorder, meaning that severity, onset and manifestation of symptoms can vary substantially.  It’s more modest expressions can still produce symptoms such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).  High performing schizophrenics can effectively mask their symptoms to maintain a functional appearance at work or around family.  The lack of maturation or development of a true ‘self’ however undermines efforts to gain true emotional satisfaction and fulfilment.  This has a disintegrative effect that tends to become more pronounced with age.  It is not unusual to see the construct of an outward appearance to fall apart with middle age.  This form of non-florid schizophrenia, which would probably struggle to fit into the DSM-5 definition below, partly because the person would likely not classify their internal content as ‘hallucinations’.   Some such sufferers are able to turn their internal activity into a creative expression in the form of literature, art or science.

A genetic predisposition to schizophrenia can be set off by exclusion from the external environment.  Migration, that is, higher exposure to social adversity, has been found to substantially increase the risk of developing schizophrenia.  Cannabis use in adolescents has been linked to schizophrenia since the 1980s, and it’s ability to stimulate internal content generation could be one reason for the high rate of use among persons on the schizophrenia spectrum.   

Schizophrenia and its comorbidities can be debilitating and leading a fulfilling and productive life a challenge.  Life expectancy and quality are reduced by this spectrum condition.  Negative symptoms of social withdrawal and anhedonia emerge usually during mid-life.  Yet many creative minds have shared this struggle.  

Famous People with Schizophrenia

Famous people with schizophrenia include Lionel Aldridge, Syd Barrett, Joey Ramone, Vivian Maier, Gene Tierney, Bettie Page, John Nash

Schizophrenia comprises a wide range of thought disorders, which ultimately affect an individual’s ability to share a reality with others.  Causes can be trauma, emotional or physical; drug use; stress; genetics.   

With neurofeedback training we aim to restore a healthy sense of self; flexibilise the social brain; and ameliorate comorbidities such as intrusive thoughts, mood disorders, focus and attention issues, paranoia and anxieties.  

Each person is different:  with a Kaiser Neuromap we assess individual vulnerabilities and train these with neurofeedback.  Personalised Brain Training enables the person to unfold their genius in a socially reciprocal manner.  

Neurofeedback is medication-free, non-invasive and evidence-based. 

Famous people associated with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder include: 

 Maths & Science:   

 – John Nash Jr. – Mathematician, Nobel Laureate, subject of the movie “A Beautiful Mind” 

 – Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell – both had schizophrenic sons

 Art, Music & Literature: 

 – James Joyce – had a schizophrenic daughter

 – Zelda Fitzgerald, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s wife 

 – Jack Kerouac 

 – [J.D. Salinger’s Holden Caulfield in “The Catcher in the Rye”]

 

 – Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd; drummer Jim Gordon; Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac; jazz musicians Buddy Bolden and Tom Harrell; Skip Spence of Jefferson Airplane; Joey Ramone from The Ramones

 – Actresses Veronica Lake, Gene Tierney, Bettie Page

 – Darrell Hammond of Saturday Night Live 

 – Photographer Vivian Maier, subject of the documentary Finding Vivian Maier 

Sports:

 – Lionel Aldridge, NFL player; became homeless before diagnosis and turned to mental health advocacy in later years

 – Bobby Fischer, World Champion Chess player

DSM-5 Definition of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is characterised by the DSM-5 as follows:

– Two or more of the following Characteristic Symptoms, present for a significant portion of time during a one-month period:

+ Delusions;

   + Hallucinations;

   + Disorganised Speech (e.g. frequent derailment or incoherence);

   + Grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour;

   + Negative Symptoms (i.e. diminished emotional expression or avolition)

– Social / Occupational Dysfunction, i.e. level of functioning in one or more major areas (work, interpersonal relations, self-care) markedly below the level achieved before onset, or failure to achieve expected levels of interpersonal, academic or occupational functioning for a given age-group

– Duration of disturbance lasting for at least six months, of which the above symptoms persist for at least one month

 

Schizophrenia is often accompanied by depressive or bipolar disorder, and can apply to people on the autism spectrum.  Other comorbidities include PTSD, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and General Anxiety Disorder.

The above definition excludes cases where the disturbance is attributable to substance abuse.  Sufferers of the condition often turn to ‘self-medication’, which can intensify episodes.  Schizophrenia is a developmental disorder, and as such doesn’t just remediate itself upon cessation of drink / drug / medication abuse. 

Note that more than half of all diagnosed SSD sufferers do not acknowledge their condition, and as such it appears that many diagnoses make the external, subjective assertion of the existence of hallucinations or incoherence.  On the other hand, distinguishing ‘normal’ internal dialogue / mental chatter from excessive internal content generation can be difficult for less interoceptive individuals, who might not even be aware of their difference.  

The first signs of this development are often missed, as they occur in a naturally transformational period such as puberty, or menopause.  The mind starts becoming addicted to its own content, thus diverting resources from the social interactions that are necessary during nascent personality building.

Cannabis / Marijuana use is often linked to the development of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.  Its frequent concurrent use has prompted publication of over 1,500 studies, with divergent findings regarding causality and exacerbation of symptoms.  Cannabis use doubles the risk of developing psychosis in vulnerable people, particularly during adolescence, where it can impair growth.

The incidence of schizophrenia is higher in urban settings, having doubled in south-east London over the past three decades.

The Neurology of Schizophrenia

Looking into the brain by means of an fMRI scan, the following differences in activation have been found compared to healthy controls.  As this is an observation of patients in a task-neutral, resting state, the differences in activation reflect the strength of the Default Mode Network (DMN)

The DMN is a network of neural hubs that are active when we are in a self-referential state – when there are no external demands on the brain.  Interestingly, the brain consumes about one-fifth (20%) of all energy used by our entire organism, and during resting state, the brain uses only 5% less energy than when ‘active’ in a task-positive way.  (The notion that we only use a fraction of our brain is a myth borne out of the observation that birds only loose their ability to fly when 90% of their brain is removed.)

The research on the DMN during the last two decades further demonstrates that we very much rely on our brain functioning during resting state:  we don’t go into ‘shut-down’ during sleep and relaxation, but are virtually as active when doing nothing as when we are actively thinking.


In Schizophrenia, the Default Mode Network is substantially weakened.   The maternal neural hub is dysrhythmic, while the paternal hub’s activity is hardly identifiable in the illustration above.  Attention switching ability is impaired, as is the hub responsible for attributing agency to observations, thus resulting in delusions.  Sources of anxiety and mood disorder are also identifiable as is the susceptibility to substance abuse and addictive behaviour.   With one in three sufferers of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) resistant to conventional interventions (medication), research into alternative approaches has increased in recent years.  Neurofeedback training of the arcuate fasciculus has been shown to provide significant improvement in AVH and reduced symptoms.  

Hearing ‘Voices’ and other sensory delusions are a function of excess neural activity, giving rise to the existence of another internal perspective other than one’s own.  This overexcitement resembles hyper-vigilance as the nervous system is over-primed to external stimuli.  The secondary auditory processing region in the brain – most often associated with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations (BA21L) –  accommodates both the internal acoustic information and external sounds.   This could be one of the reasons sufferers of the disorder are frequently unaware or in denial of their illness.  

‘Hearing Voices’, or auditory hallucinations, can take many forms.  Some sufferers experience a mainly benign ‘soundtrack’ or musical accompaniment in their head.  Others hear a realistic, internal, critical commentary, heightening their sense of feeling watched and struggling with an imagined authority whose ferocity increases as the person tires physically and mentally.  The strain on self-esteem is both direct, due to its critical nature, and secondary in that the constant experience diverts the person from the moment and other self-reflective, self-soothing thoughts.  A search for both confidence and numbing often finds a self-destructive drug-cycle that exacerbates the issue of lacking social engagement.  

 

Schizophrenia fMRI Brain shows diminished Default Mode Network Difference
Diminished Default Mode Network functionality in Schizophrenia per fMRI

Differences between the brains of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder sufferers and Healthy Controls have been documented in numerous studies.  These include lower Gray and White Matter Volume (GMV / WMV) in left temporal and frontal lobes; excess GMV in the basal ganglia (correlating with positive symptom severity); reduced density of key fasciculae (long distance white matter tracts); loss of GMV, particularly in males past age 35 and prefrontal glial cell loss.  

White matter tracts are particularly – adversely – affected in schizophrenia.  More than 50% of cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections were shown to be affected, in particular connections between key neural hubs of the default mode network.  Reduction in FA (fractional anisotropy, a proxy for functional connectivity) affected 40% of cerebral white matter volume (234ml,  or one US cup) in this study.  This finding is particularly interesting, as neurofeedback training has been shown to be able to strengthen white matter tracts.

recent study also found that switching treatment-resistant patients onto clozapine  found subsequent reduction in thalamic and hippocampal volume, enlargement of lateral ventricles (temporal lobe size decline) yet improved symptoms.  Cortical thinning following 6-9 months of Clozapine treatment was also found despite symptom improvement, and causality between medication and anatomical change observations has yet to be established.  

Finding neuromarkers specific to Schizophrenia is a challenge created by the relatively broad definition of the disorder (which serves as the criterium for participant selection in studies), and the commonality of comorbidities such as anxiety, depression and other mood and personality disorders.  The benefit of qEEG-brain map based Default Network Training is that we can form a personalised brain training plan that recognises the individuality of each brain.

Thank you for your time and interest in reading this.  To support further research and upcoming video content, Daniel Webster is open to donations by PayPal. 

Neurofeedback and Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia comprises a wide range of thought disorders, which ultimately affect an individual’s ability to share a reality with others.  Causes can be trauma, emotional or physical; drug use; stress; genetics.   

With neurofeedback training we aim to restore a healthy sense of self; flexibilise the social brain; and ameliorate comorbidities such as intrusive thoughts, mood disorders, focus and attention issues, paranoia and anxieties; and psychosis

Neurofeedback training can improve functional connectivity and strengthen white matter tracts, both of which are impaired in Schizophrenia.  

Each person is different:  with a Kaiser Neuromap we assess individual vulnerabilities and train these with neurofeedback.  Personalised Brain Training enables the person to unfold their genius in a socially reciprocal manner.  

Neurofeedback is medication-free, non-invasive and evidence-based. 

While there are certain commonalities between sufferers of schizophrenia, no two brains are the same.  On the basis of a brain map we can identify particular vulnerabilities and work on these specifically. 

Neurofeedback training can help restore the integrity of the Default Mode Network, the neural basis for ‘self’, as well as switching between self-referential states and active modes (the Central Executive and the Salience Networks). 

Emotional self-regulation can be improved and anxiety, depression, sleep and focus issues alleviated.  

Neurofeedback can calm the brain and help manage the ‘Voices’, as well as other regions prone to over-priming external agency.  Significant reduction in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) has been achieved with neurofeedback training. 

Psychosis is a state that can occur, and recur, in persons diagnosed with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Trauma and neurodegenerative conditions.  Note however that it is not a necessary condition for any of these.

Daniel Webster of Neurofeedback London-Brighton has extensive experience working with Schizophrenia patients.  Research and experience have shown effectiveness of neurofeedback training for Schizophrenia. 

 

Neurofeedback Training can help address specific schizophrenia symptoms and comorbidities including:

– Default Mode Network functionality and psychosis

– ‘Voices’, auditory, visual and kynaesthetic delusions

– Paranoia and Anxiety

– Thought disorder

– Sleep disorders

– Mood disorders and emotional self-regulation, including depression / bipolar disorder

– Attention switching and focus

– Sense of self

– Self / Other distinction

– Shared authority and societal rules / conventions

– Borderline Personality Disorder

– Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

– Addiction and vulnerability to substance misuse

– Aggression and social invasiveness

– Suicidal ideation / self-harm

Neurofeedback is a form of complementary therapy and should not be seen as a replacement for conventional medicine.  qEEG brain map-based neurofeedback training takes a more holistic approach to brain functioning, rather than just focusing on medical symptoms.  It is not intended as a form of diagnosis nor medical intervention nor medical advice per the disclaimer.

Brain Maps and Personalised Brain Training

Kaiser Neuromap brain maps and Brodmann areas

Brain Maps expose Individual Vulnerabilities

With a Kaiser Neuromap, we can identify character traits, vulnerabilities and strengths. 

Different brain areas and networks govern our behaviour.  For example, there are parts of our brain which control mood regulation; spatial distractibility; physiological arousal; our sense of self; self-critical thoughts; anger and emotional attachment; and there are various sources of anxiety.

A brain map shows us which brain areas are behaving immaturely, and thus expose us to vulnerabilities or mental health issues.

Rather than fitting people into categories – diagnosis – we can assess vulnerability to behaviour patterns.  Every brain is different.  A brain map provides a more granular approach to understanding our strengths and weaknesses.

Neurofeedback process explained, illustrating real-time analysis of brain waves and feedback given

Personalised Brain Training with Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback lets us train dysrythmic brain areas.  With sensors comfortably fitted to the brain areas we want to train, we detect brainwave patterns real-time while watching a movie.  When these patterns are inefficient, the volume drops momentarily.  This is the feedback we are giving our brain, short and instantaneously.  

The brain area we are training recognises this – while our conscious mind is focussed on the movie – and adjusts its behaviour to restore the normal volume.  With repetition, throughout a session, learning occurs.  

Meanwhile our conscious mind is solely focussed on the movie; the training process is passive in this sense.    

The drop in volume is subtle, so we continue to understand the flow of the movie.  No current or electrical stimulation is fed to the brain; sensors simply read brainwaves and the feedback is purely audio-visual.

Neurofeedback is preconscious brain training aimed at enhancing our mental, emotional and spiritual health

Neurofeedback trains our Pre-Conscious Mind

 

Rather than engaging the conscious mind, which slows us down, we are training preconscious processes

This equips us with the ability to live in the moment and attain our potential (if we have to resort to conscious control, we are not living in the moment).

Personalised Brain Training is an advanced qEEG brain map-based approach to neurofeedback training developed by the founders of the field.  Taking Othmer Method / ILF training methods further, it employs Default Network Training protocols as developed by David Kaiser.

We take a holistic approach to healthy brain self-regulation, rather than categorisation or diagnosis. 

Neurofeedback is evidence-based complementary therapy with over 2000 PubMed peer-reviewed research reports

Neurofeedback is Evidence-based

Neurofeedback training is an evidence-based complementary therapy.  Its efficacy was first demonstrated some 50 years ago, and with advances in technology, training protocols have become more efficient and the feedback method – watching movies – thoroughly enjoyable. 

Neurofeedback is evidence-based.  It’s first application was discovered in 1971 when it was used to resolve intractable epilepsy. 

There are over 2,000 peer-reviewed research reports on PubMed demonstrating efficacy across a number of pathologies. 

In the US, it is an accepted complementary treatment for many challenges. 

Neurofeedback: Uses and Applications

Personalised Brain Training is a non-invasive, medication-free way to address cortical imbalances.  With a Kaiser Neuromap, we understand which brain areas are dysrhythmic, and train these with the most advanced neurofeedback methods.  

This provides a more granular approach than categorisation into pathologies.  In fact, many mental health issues present in combination with others, and the diagnostic approach can set rigorous hurdles that often result in distinct labels that don’t necessarily capture the entire picture. 

The vulnerabilities exposed by a brain map may manifest in various combinations of behavioural and mental health issues.  With Personalised Brain Training we look at the brain as a whole.  Treatment is non-specific with respect to psychopathologies.  For ease of navigation and understanding, the following applications are listed below, along with research evidence, in their separate domains.  

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