Neurofeedback for Rehabilitation, TBI, and Neurodegenerative Conditions

Neurofeedback and Kaiser Neuromaps – an advanced qEEG brain map – have numerous applications to neuro-degenerative conditions.  These are evidence-based through peer-reviewed research, and the process is medication-free, non-invasive and enjoyable. 

Neurofeedback training has the potential to slow down the actual and perceived progress of various conditions by virtue of its positive structural effects (e.g. promoting myelination) and simultaneous palliative effect.  

Intra-day fluctuations in performance and function in persons affected by a neurodegenerative condition imply that neuronal loss (or gain) is not the only mechanism at work.  The connectivity of neurons – their ability to form networks which contribute to memory and thought formation and ultimately our sense of self – is variable.  Neuroplasticity is the process by which neurons form new synapses, or connections, and this ability is highly adaptive during both health and disease.  Neurofeedback has been shown to promote this process.   

Personalised Brain Training – qEEG brain map-based neurofeedback training – has been shown to provide the following with regard to neurodegenerative disease:

– reducing symptom severity

– structural improvements of the brain including myelination, microglial function

– ameliorating motor symptoms and sensory integration

– restoring life quality

– improving sleep, depression, anxiety and sense of self, as well as other concomitant mental health issues

Neurodegenerative Conditions include Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s Disease; MND / ALS; Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Multiple Sclerosis.  Many of these can lead to dementia. 

Neurofeedback training is an evidence-based, non-specific, complementary therapy.  It is drug-free and non-invasive. 

Quick Navigation

Early Screening, Detection and Monitoring

With a qEEG brain map, and specific software, we can gain insight into how different brain areas are communicating with each other – functional connectivity.  

This interaction is altered in TBI and neurodegeneration, such as in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntinton’s, Multiple Sclerosis, ALS.  In fact, different conditions show specific patterns of altered functionality, which has been discovered in fMRI research.  qEEG provides us with a comfortable complementary approach, as we can also see connections rather than just activations of brain areas.  

The neuromarkers are necessary, but not sufficient conditions.  Diagnosis should be sought first and foremost through primary medical channels.  Brain maps and neurofeedback can help by providing an alternate view, often before lesions or damage is visible by other means. 

Early detection can provide a way of mitigating the manifestations of neurodegeneration, by means of lifestyle changes and other medical interventions, as well as neurofeedback training, which is evidence-based.

Neurodegeneration in the form of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis or TBI can be detected with a qEEG brain map revealing altered functional connectivity neuromarkers

Enjoyable Treatment Process

Neurofeedback lets us train dysrythmic brain areas.  Rather than engaging the conscious mind, which slows us down, we are training preconscious processes


With sensors comfortably fitted to the brain areas we want to train, we detect brainwave patterns real-time while watching a movie.  When these patterns are inefficient, the volume drops momentarily.  This is the feedback we are giving our brain, it is solely auditory or visual, and the sensors are for measurement only.

The brain area we are training recognises this – while our conscious mind is focussed on the movie – and adjusts its behaviour to restore the normal volume.  With repetition, throughout a session, learning occurs.  

Meanwhile our conscious mind is solely focussed on the film showing on the screen; the training process is passive in this sense and all that is required of the person is to be engaged by the movie of choice.  

Sessions can last from fifteen minutes to over two hours when tolerated.  We generally achieve substantial calming in session that make previously unthought of film durations now attainable.

Neurofeedback for Rehabilitation

Neurofeedback training enhances structural and functional connectivity in key brain networks. 

Neurofeedback is non-invasive, medication-free complementary therapy for various aspects of neuro-Rehabilitation.  

With neurofeedback training, we can help the brain re-establish key physical and functional connections following a traumatic brain injury.  

As the brain is pushed into a defensive state following physical trauma, character traits adapt resulting in hypervigilance, anxiety and mood and sleep dysregulation.  Neurofeedback training is shown to be effective in treating these issues. 

Key white matter tracts, or long distance information superhighways, have been shown to strengthen as a result of neurofeedback training, with concomitant positive cognitive effects.

A Kaiser Neuromap lets us identify areas of vulnerability on which to base Personalised Brain Training on. 

We can also address cortical motor areas as well as brain areas responsible for speech comprehension and generation. 

Neurofeedback is evidence-based and effective.  See also “Neurofeedback for Neurodegenerative Disorders” and “Neurofeedback for Aphasia“.

Neurofeedback training improves cognitive ability and strengthens white and gray matter per Ghaziri Study 2013 "Neurofeedback Training induces Changes in White and Gray Matter"
Neurofeedback can Strengthen Neuronal Pathways​

With neurofeedback, we can train white matter tracts, thus improving structural connectivity between distant brain areas.  

In healthy patients, this growth correlated with cognitive improvements.  

It is encouraging to see research demonstrating the positive structural effects neurofeedback can have.   

This is particularly relevant in rehabilitation following an insult to the brain, such as physical trauma.  

We are giving the brain impulses and guidance to improve its own regeneration. 


Case Study - Neurofeedback and Stroke / TBI

The following account of the recovery of a Stroke patient illustrates the potential efficacy of neurofeedback for Stroke / TBI.  For Research on neurofeedback and Stroke / TBI see here

Claire (name changed) is a 48-year old female who is three years post-thalamic CVA (ruptured aneurysm).  In particular, her physical symptoms included severe muscle contractures in her wrist and elbows leading to impaired movement, as well as being wheel-chair bound.

After two neurofeedback sessions, she got her wrist and elbow released.  

Claire was getting active elbow extension and shoulder flexion after five sessions.  Pain was also resolved in her hand, which had been a major issue previously.

Functionally, she achieved improved independence in dressing skills, required only minimal assistance with bathing, and was able to walk with a cane.  

After thirty neurofeedback sessions, Claire started walking without her cane. 

Significant improvements (over 50%) included: 

 – Working memory, chronic aching pain, attention deficit

 – night sweats, vertigo and hot flashes

 – body awareness, balance, fine motor coordination, muscle spasticity, reflux and chronic nerve pain

 – paranoia

Note that this is a subjective account from a therapist and a causal relationship between training and improvements is not proven.

Research Evidence for Neurofeedback in Rehabilitation

While outcomes are unpredictable, there is research to show that neurofeedback can have very beneficial effects on rehabilitation following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).  Moreover, case reports by clinicians show remarkable recoveries.  Neurofeedback training has also been shown to be able to strengthen white matter tracts, suggesting that positive structural changes are possible with training. The following research reports show improvements in motor and functional skills following neurofeedback training:


– Alpha-Theta neurofeedback training has a “beneficial effect on symptom reduction as well as perceived stress.  It also has a beneficial effect on levels of serum cortisol” involving a significant reduction during acute recovery

 – neurofeedback training was shown to be effective with Postconcussion Syndrome (PCS) 

 – efficaceous treatment for chronic posttraumatic headache sustained in military service

 – neurofeedback therapy showed significant changes in structural and functional connectivity in young TBI patients, with cognitive scores and concussion symptoms improving significantly

 – neurofeedback is shown to be an effective intervention for auditory memory

 – deemed “probably an excellent complementary technique” that produced clear benefits in divided and sustained attention, visuospatial skills and the processing speed of motor-dependent tasks in persons with severe TBI

 – beneficial outcomes in upper limb stroke rehabilitation

 – neurofeedback training can lead to a learned modulation of brain signals with associated changes at both neural and behavioural level

 – modulation of premotor cortex and associated motor control areas can be achieved with neurofeedback training

 – improvements in TBI / PTSD in Vietnam Veterans across domains of cognition, pain, sleep, fatigue, mood/emotion, PTSD symptoms and overall activity levels

 – patients report improvement in a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms in TBI following neurofeedback training

 – result of 40 neurofeedback sessions included significant improvements in several motor tasks

Neurofeedback and POTS, Anxiety

Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (PoTS) was first described in the 1940s, refined in 1993 and finally received a specific diagnostic code in October 2022.  It is characterised by exercise intolerance and near syncope upon standing upright, elevated pulse (tachycardia) by 30-40bpm within 10 minutes of standing up, fatigue, anxiety and light-headedness.  Often misdiagnosed as chronic anxiety or panic disorder, the group of symptoms comprised by PoTS has a biomarker and increasingly considered an autoimmune disorder, rather than only autonomic nervous system dysfunction.  Specifically, increased levels of cytokines and chemokines characteristic of an innate immune condition were found, similar to autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, type-1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 

The condition affects females five times more frequently than males, mainly between 15-25 years of age, with over one million affected in the US alone.  PoTS symptoms can persist for years, though half of patients find that orthostatic symptoms and functional impairment subside within five years, and of thost most within 1-2 years.  It is estimated that 2-14% of Covid sufferers go on to develop PoTS, while 30% of long Covid patients, especially women, meet the diagnostic criteria.

A client presenting with PoTS like symptoms, recovered within three months of starting neurofeedback training, to the extent that the tachycardia was fully under control and anxieties had subsided substantially.  Clinical studies will have to prove correlation.  Notably, physical symptoms became manageable, from being previously incapacitating, in a relatively short period of time.  This result is encouraging, especially with regard to the speed and extent of recovery, and neurofeedback has been shown to be effective for anxiety.  Also, in this person, other neurological issues could be detected with qEEG.  

Neurofeedback is a form of complementary therapy and should not be seen as a replacement for conventional medicine.  qEEG brain map-based neurofeedback training takes a more holistic approach to brain functioning, rather than just focusing on medical symptoms.  It is not intended as a form of diagnosis nor medical intervention nor medical advice per the disclaimer.

Neurofeedback and Alzheimer Disease (AD)

Alzheimer Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder.  Similar to Parkinson’s Disease, secondary symptoms are neuropsychiatric in nature and can be addressed with neurofeedback training, helping the person to maintain their sense of self, mood regulation and sleep, and contain arising anxieties.  

There are biomarkers that allow us to differentiate between Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), Parkinson’s Disease, and Alzheimer Disease.  A Kaiser Neuromap gives us a non-specific indication of each, that can assist early onset diagnosis and thus shape the treatment plan at an early stage.  

Occipital Hypoperfusion in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer Disease per Caminiti et al, 2019

As with other neurodegenerative disorders, physical changes in the brain affect our sensory interpretation of our surroundings, giving rise to neuropsychiatric disorders.  We can become relational in our thinking, and specifically with regard to brain areas that are responsible for our interpretation of personal space  and social boundaries.  

Neurofeedback Personalised Brain Training aims precisely at encouraging cortical participation and help us share a reality with others,  counteracting progression of major secondary, and possibly primary symptoms.  Rather than promoting a ‘cure’, we are helping affected persons improve their quality of life in many ways.

The link between Alzheimer’s Disease and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) has long been established, as summarised in this research paper from 2014.  Four out of five people carry the herpes virus, with one in four being prone to physical symptoms upon periodic reactivation, e.g. blisters / cold sores occurring during times of stress and/or immunosuppression.  Reactivated HSV1 has been found to cause inflammatory damage directly, probably involving increased formation of beta amyloid and AD-like P-tau changes found in HSV1-infected cell cultures.  HSV1 DNA was found to be specifically localised in amyloid plaques in AD.  Further links have been discovered between shared pathways of HSV1 and AD.  HSV1 (herpes virus) can cross the blood-brain barrier and remain latent in the brain; combined with carriage of a type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-e4), this confers a high risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease.  Some 25-30% of the population carry this gene.  

COVID-19 is of particular concern with respect to Alzheimer’s Disease.  A pre-existing AD diagnosis is the single highest risk indicator of Covid infection identified thus far; the highest mortality is observed among the most elderly AD patients.  

This susceptibility is partly explained by the up-regulation of ACE2R receptors in the limbic regions of AD-affected brains.  It is even hypothesised that amyloid-beta is involved in fighting cerebral Covid infection, similar to an observed process with regard to alpha-synuclein in PD and Covid, a defence mechanism that might result in higher levels in the long run.  

Reactivation of HSV-1 can aggravate Alzheimer’s Disease processes, such as amyloid beta and p-tau production.  It has been shown that Covid can reactivate HSV-1, in particular the S1 spike protein.  

Alzheimer’s Disease is viewed as a prion disease, a feature that again puts it into context with Covid-19, a coronavirus whose S1 spike protein has prion-like qualities.

Alzheimer’s Disease is the number one cause for dementia, with no known effective treatments.  Finding the ‘root cause’ of this condition in order to produce a targeted cure is further complicated by the fact that the definition of what constitutes AD is somewhat circular.  We define the phenomenon by its symptoms: 

 – Amyloid beta (Ab) plaques: Ab(40-42) oligomers are prominent in AD brains, both in soluble form, where they are more toxic, and in dense plaques, which are thought to serve as reservoirs.  These oligomers can cause synaptic dysfunction, dendritic spine damage and neuronal death.  Their inflammatory effect includes activation of microglia, astrogliosis, overproduction of cytokines, and dystrophy of neurites.  This leads to brain atropy, often first observed in the temporal lobes.  The epsilon4 allele of ApoE (e4APOE) is a genetic risk factor thought to affect Ab metabolism; 25-30% of the population have this gene.  Ab oligomers can also induce the formation of Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFTs): 

 – P-Tau: Neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) is another defining feature of AD.  These formations occur after Ab accumulations, though they are seen in frontotemporal dementia without Ab plaques and may also be a parallel, symbiotic phenomenon accelerating disease progression.  The Ab / p-tau theory however only accounts for a fraction of the structural dementia comorbidities, and treatment strategies targeting these two aspects have thus far been unsuccessful.  This necessitates additional theories: 

 – Neuroinflammation: While unclear whether this is a consequence or cause of the condition, neuroinflammation is deemed to a major contributor towards the progression and severity of AD, possibly more so than Ab accumulation and NFTs.  All three of the above aspects are addressed by another causative, or at least contributory theory: 

 – Viral Infection: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) reactivation is highly correlated with AD; causes damage to the same brain areas that are affected in AD (herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), induced by HSV, damages the hippocampus, temporal and frontal lobes); is found (by DNA analysis) in substantially all amyloid plaques; is known to alter Ab metabolism, CA2+ homeostasis, synaptic dysfunction and apoptosis in HSV infected neuronal and glial cells.  Note that this pertains to carriers of the e4APOE allele, while HSV in the brain of non-e4APOE carriers confers a much lesser risk.  At least 80% of the population carries HSV, with only one fifth exhibiting symptoms (e.g. cold sores in times of stress or immunodeficiency); 25-30% of the population carry the e4APOE allele.

The last point is particularly relevant:  There are multiple approaches to arresting HSV reactivation (e.g. anti-virals, such as acyclovir, and also components of seaweed(!)), which appears to be the most promising approach addressing suspected cause.  It also provides a link with Covid, and an explanation for the high susceptibility of AD patients to this: 

Covid, especially the S1 spike protein, has been shown to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and enter the brain through a number of pathways, including olfactory and vagus nerve.  It has been found to reactivate latent cerebral HSV-1.  Amyloid beta (Ab) (1-42) has been found to strengthen the binding of the S1 spike protein of Covid (SARS-CoV-2) to ACE2 receptors and increase viral entry.  Covid also increases neuroinflammation.  Further, the CA2+ dysregulation in AD facilitates passage of the Covid virus.  ACE2 receptors are more prevalent in limbic regions of the brain, including brainstem and hippocampus, and importantly, they are up-regulated in AD brains, thus conferring higher susceptibility.  Another possibility is that beta amyloid formation increases in response to HSV (and potentially Covid), as a defence mechanism, resulting in higher aggregation.  An analogy is an observation made with influenza viruses, in particular the West Nile Virus, where alpha synuclein production increased to combat the virus (an absence thereof resulted in disastrous disease progression), leading to aggregation and thus higher Parkinson’s Disease susceptibility. 

Neurofeedback and Parkinson's Disease (PD)

Parkinson’s Disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, after Alzheimer disease (AD).  

Onset is usually characterised by motor symptoms:  bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, resting tremor and instability of posture.  

With regard to PD, Neurofeedback training has been shown to:

improve static and dynamic balance

improve motor symptoms

Secondary, non-motor symptoms evolve, such as cognitive impairment, depression, sleep issues (e.g. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), a potential prodromal marker of PD, where paradoxically motor function is improved relative to wake state), and olfactory dysfunction.  

Neurofeedback training is effective at reducing symptom severity and addressing most of these neuropsychiatric disturbances. 

On a cortical level, PD involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons, accumulation of Lewy bodies, damage to neuroglial cells and demyelination of neuronal axons. 

Neurofeedback training has been shown to improve myelination across white matter tracts.  We can also train frequencies that pertain to glial cells, potentially improving their self-regulation. 

A recent study raised the spectre of a connection between COVID-19 infection and Parkinson’s; three persons without familial history developed clinical parkinsonism within 2-5 weeks following infection requiring hospitalisation.

Dementia with Lewy Bodies, Alzheimer Disease and Parkinson's Disease fMRI patterns per Caminiti et al, 2019

Neurofeedback improves quality of life, sensory integration, motor skills, movement initiation and balance in Parkinson’s Disease.

Peer-reviewed research shows the following effects in neurofeedback applications to Parkinson’s Disease:

improvement in static and dynamic balance

improved motor symptoms, on a par with other therapies such as rTMS – while being non-invasive and drug-free

– improvement in life quality

– potential to train up speed of movement initiation by 37%

– increased sensory integration in 10-12 sessions

– reduced symptom severity

General (non-PD specific) effects of neurofeedback training include:

– overall increased fine motor skills

– boost behavioural performance and learning

Comorbid mental health issues, such as anxiety, depression, aggression,  and mood imbalances can be addressed directly with neurofeedback. 

Chronic Pain is another application for neurofeedback, where studies have demonstrated its efficacy. 

Subjectively, PD sufferers find neurofeedback training calming, reassuring and report an improved sense of feeling being part of their body.  


Neurofeedback and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) / ALS / Huntington's

It has recently been shown that neurofeedback training led to cognitive improvements in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, and that this corresponded to improved functional connectivity in key motor and salience networks.  Increased fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed, which correlated with cognitive improvement. 

 MS is a neurodegenerative condition that adversely affects axonal myelination.  FA is among other a measure of myelination, so the result that neurofeedback can make positive changes in this condition is very encouraging. 

study with sufferers of Huntington’s Disease, another neurodegenerative condition, showed that cognitive and motor skills improved and that these changes related to improved functional connectivity in key brain regions, again a conclusion that neuroplasticity can be induced despite the presence of neurodegeneration.  


White Matter Dementia

0:00 / 0:00
White Matter Dementia

The ability of white matter disruption to contribute towards cognitive decline to the extent that dementia results is known since the 1980s when the term “White Matter Dementia” was coined.  Various pathologies, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, ALD and MS (Multiple Sclerosis) are significantly characterised by white matter disruption.  In fact, the involvement of white matter disruption in these neurodegenerative pathologies has been asserted with a certainty that contrasts with the evolution of attempts to define the various ‘diseases’ at times.  

Neurofeedback can positively affect white matter growth.  In healthy patients, this growth was faster than the rate of neurodegeneration in neurodegenerative conditions.  Research has yet to confirm that this works for these conditions specifically.  

This approach is non-specific and holistic – we are treating the brain as a whole, and not with regard to a particular condition.  Indeed, defining a neurodegenerative pathology is in itself a challenge – Parkinson’s diagnostic criteria have evolved substantially in recent decades and are still subject to debate and expansion, as is the definition of a disease itself.  In vivo, that is, before a post mortem examination, Parkinson’s is largely ascertained on the basis of symptoms.  It would seem logical to aim therapy at these symptoms, rather than, say, chase a ‘cure’ for an ill-defined phenomenon (is it strictly, and only, dopaminergic neuron death?).  This differentiation in approach is important as funding criteria for research into ways to ameliorate the condition often utilise this to the detriment of alternatives.   As a result, neurofeedback is sadly neglected in the quest for helping people with neurodegenerative conditions.  

Neurofeedback has been shown to help with primary and secondary symptoms in Parkinson’s; it is a non-specific, complementary therapy that is non-invasive and medication-free.  



White matter decline is measurable with DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) even before the onset of cognitive decline.  The mechanisms by which damage occurs varies by pathology.  However any intervention that improves these connections should have a positive effect on the person, both structurally and cognitively.  Counteracting this trend in a non-invasive, medication-free and enjoyable manner seems a worthy cause. 

The search for a ‘cure’ of different neurodegenerative conditions which lead to dementia is strongly focused on the defining feature – e.g. amyloid beta production in Alzheimer’s, and dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s.  Addressing symptoms is often seen as a secondary endeavour, with regard to time, prestige, funding and resources.  Daniel Webster has spent time working in palliative care and high-support living and rehabilitation facilities.  He found that ameliorating life quality can lead to at least a perceived slowdown in the progression of a condition.  There is also a possibility that symptom reduction can actually impede a worsening of the condition, and certainly worthy of further research.     

Subjective feedback by dementia clients is very encouraging. Research into this aspect of dementia, and how neurofeedback can be applied to slow, arrest and potentially reverse disease progression, is a worthwhile endeavour.  Please contact Daniel directly to support initiatives in this regard.  

Thank you for your time and interest in reading this.  To support further research and upcoming video content, Daniel Webster is open to donations by PayPal. 

White matter tracts are information superhighways connecting various brain regions and make up c.50% of our brain volume.  White matter abnormalities in various forms of dementia, including DLB, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and mTBI (mild traumatic brain injury) are well documented, and these contribute towards cognitive decline.  

With neurofeedback, we can train white matter tracts.  This seminal study indicates that we can improve myelination with neurofeedback training.  It has been further corroborated since, notably with regard to efficiency

Neurofeedback training improves cognitive ability and strengthens white and gray matter per Ghaziri Study 2013 "Neurofeedback Training induces Changes in White and Gray Matter"
Neurofeedback can Strengthen Neuronal Pathways​

Secondary effects of TBI / Brain Damage / Neurodegeneration

As the brain’s functional connectivity is impacted by physical trauma, changes in character can occur.  These include aspects of self-sustainability, such as mood regulation, sleep and anxieties; and extend to sense of self, re-assessment of social and personal boundaries, impulsive aggression and rage, focus and productivity as well as sense of emotional security.

With neurofeedback training we can address these issues in a personalised manner, based on a Kaiser Neuromap.  The person feels more comfortable and optimistic about their progress as we restore hope and sense of accomplishment.

Comorbid mental health issues, such as anxietydepressionaggression,  PTSD and mood imbalances can be addressed directly with neurofeedback. We strengthen sense of self and improve emotional regulation.

Chronic Pain is another application for neurofeedback, where studies have demonstrated its efficacy. 


"I felt so calm last night! And slept like there were magnets between me and the bed.  10 hours straight."
"Slept like a log."
"Since I started neurofeedback training, my dreams have come back!"
Client testimony.

Sleep is where we recover – physically, mentally, emotionally.  

It is a complex process whereby the brain enters different behaviour patterns in various stages.  Slow wave sleep is where our body recovers; REM sleep is where we digest the day’s experiences, consolidate what we’ve learned and let our brain process memories and impressions.  

Ideally, we would like to be able to switch off once comfortable, enter a deep sleep and wake up restored and energetic.  If our sleep suffers, so do our concentration, productivity, physical abilities and emotional flexibility. 


Neurofeedback improves sleep and restoration, both REM and slow wave sleep

Neurofeedback has also been successful in treating other sleep disorders, such as somnambulism (sleepwalking), obstructive sleep apnea (to the extent the cause is not physical), confusional arousals, sleep terrors, nightmares, nocturnal enuresis (bed-wetting), delated sleep phase disorder, insomnia and restless leg syndrome.  Evidence is provided at practitioners’ conferences and has yet to be manifested in published research.  The above disorders have EEG correlates, which provides an intuitive basis for understanding that we have a chance at treatment with neurofeedback training. 

Different neural hubs are responsible for sleep onset and depth of sleep.  We can identify vulnerabilities with a brain map, and train these with neurofeedback to help restore healthy sleep hygiene.  

Sleep is usually one of the first things to normalise during neurofeedback training.  

We have also seen improvements in other sleep conditions, such as enuresis and sleep apnea.



There are many manifestations of anxiety, including social anxiety, panic attacks, excess body awareness (body dysmorphia), emotional hypersensitivity, fears and phobias.

Neurofeedback is an established, evidence-based treatment for anxiety. 

It was found that neurofeedback training for anxiety and depression “results in enduring improvements approximately 80% of the time” 

Confidence and social integration tend to improve accordingly, resulting in a positive feedback loop that helps shape new trajectories.  

A brain map will reveal overactivity of brain areas responsible for monitoring consequences of actions (timidity, general fright and reticence); watching out for an abuser (bully); body and face awareness; and excessive self-monitoring.  This helps us understand the potential presence of real threats and fear factors.  We can also detect possible tendencies to develop unhealthy body awareness.  Neurofeedback training lets us address this issues.


Anxiety can have multiple facets, including intrusive thoughts and social anxiety, and the feeling of everything coming at oneself all at once

There are multiple types of anxiety, each correlating with one or more brain areas being dysrhythmic:

Social anxiety: When we’re in a situation with other people and our understanding of the social dynamics and complexities is overwhelmed. 

Sensory overload: our brain interprets all sensory stimulus as directed to ourselves.  We lose the ability to discern what is directed at us, and which matters or interactions are of no concern to us.  This sets us up for panic attacks and ultimately psychosis.  It also means we become singular in our perspective, unable to take on other points of view

Loss of narrative: Our episodic understanding of the situation, how we got there and what happens next, is impaired, and we are unsure of where we are and where we’re going.  This hyperactivates our amygdala, and the sensation is highly emotional

Auditory sensitivity: we become prone to overly interpreting the emotional content of words and sounds, creating an air of prickliness and pushing people away without knowing it

Activation: Our ARAS is responsible for setting the right level of physiological arousal, or wakefulness, for the situation, and to remain stable there.  When this is on overdrive, we are pushed further into fight-or-flight mode than necessary, thus heightening sensory sensitivity.  Panic attacks are an extreme manifestation.  Our ability to calm down quickly is reduced.

Trauma: an inability to self-nurture – creating an emotional safe-space around us – and self-soothe – being able to talk ourselves down rationally from a situation, thus resulting in mood instability.  This can also manifest in dissociation and heightened pain perception.  We ruminate about the past and worry about the future, instead of being able to enjoy the present. 

Intrusive thoughts: Self-criticism overshadows motivation and confidence, and we become self-aware and distracted by negative thoughts and feelings.  Some use acquired habits to distract from this.  Others become attached to the reward circuitry triggered, and sustained by feeding obstructive, self-deprecating thought content.  Our confidence, motivation and social interaction suffer as a result.

Mood Regulation: Depression and Motivation

There are numerous contributors to depressive tendencies from a neural perspective.  A brain map lets us identify possible cortical contributors, and we can train important neural hubs that affect our ability to regulate mood.

In this sense, neurofeedback is a next-generation treatment for depression.  We seek to avoid reliance on medication, especially from an early age.

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training in treating depression is well-documented.  Effects have been shown to be strong and lasting.  Working on depression helps us re-establish our sense of safety in the world, and often correlates with our ability to fall asleep. 


There are multiple components to Depression: 

 – mood regulation and stability

 – motivation and productivity

 – sleep and effective recuperation

With Personalised Brain Training we take a holistic approach:  Key neural networks responsible for our sense of self, for focus and productivity, and for mood regulation are addressed during neurofeedback training.  The process is non-invasive and medication free, as well as enjoyable as we use movies to embed the feedback.

Bipolar disorder affects one in five people with depression.  Again, we can address brain areas responsible for maintaining stability, and help calming, particularly important during manic episodes, thus seeking to avoid psychosis.  Also, given that more than two-thirds of bipolar disorder sufferers are misdiagnosed initially, identifying the presence of non-specific neuromarkers can aid (but not replace) the diagnosis process.


Trauma, Abuse, PTSD

Trauma and abuse leave scars.  

When the viability of our existence has been subjected to threat, our behaviour adapts.  We become primed for hypervigilance, sensitive to triggers, and our physiology responds accordingly.  A heightened sense of awareness now confers safety, and we can even become addicted to this.


Trauma and Abuse can be detected by a brain map and treated with neurofeedback

Our brain keeps the score:  Areas responsible for defence and vigilance are activated, even when there is no objective reason.  Sensory stimulus is amplified, and we dedicate value energy resources to the monitoring of others’ intentions.  Anxieties are rekindled, and the strain on our system leaves us exhausted while unable to switch off and effectively recuperate.  Our focus and productivity drop, as does our self-esteem.  We can feel detached from our bodies, dissociating.  Our social capacity is impaired.

Neurofeedback helps us break this cycle:  we equip the brain to get over it, to get on with it, re-establish our sense of self-worth, and the ability to constructively engage with our environment.  We gain a healthy sense of detachment, which allows us to process the past more efficiently and look forward to the future. 

With a brain map, we can identify which parts of our system are being particularly stressed.  Neurofeedback training helps us bring these brain areas into better alignment.  




Hallucinations are a frequent occurrence in dementia sufferers – 80% of DLB (Dementia with Lewy Bodies) patients experience visual hallucinations, and these are complex visual, animate and often involve people.  They are also a feature in other forms of dementia. 

Research on audio-visual hallucinations in Schizophrenia patients have found that Neurofeedback training can produce significant results in reducing treatment resistant auditory verbal hallucinations.  I30% of cases antipsychotic medication has little or no effect.  Psychotropic medication use in general can have undesirable side effects and is contentious.

Hallucinations have cortical sources – there are specific brain areas responsible for visual mental imagery, and research shows that the phenomenon as experienced by dementia sufferers correlates with decreased gray matter volume in various prefrontal, motor and visual association areas.  Interestingly, the brain areas affected are differ by form of dementia, such as DLB versus Parkinson’s.  

This suggests that treatment could be improved without side effects.

Research funded by Parkinson’s UK regarding hallucinations is currently focused on CBD and anti-sickness pills, and possibly other drugs.  Neurofeedback training is drug-free and non-invasive complementary therapy.

Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Psychosis is a state of mind where all sensory stimulus is interpreted as being directed to oneself.  

While it is natural for infants and children to interpret the world this way, we grow out of this mode between the ages of 3-5.  We can assist this important maturation step with neurofeedback training.

As we mature, we start to learn that not everything that’s happening in the world is directed at ourselves.  

Feeling as if everything is directed at us results in anxiety and / or deep depression, and clouds our interactions with others.

It also reduces our ability to take on other perspectives, consider different views and be accommodating of others’ stances.  This reduces people’s self-awareness and thus insight into the need for change and improvement, providing another obstacle to betterment.

Shocks, such as trauma, drug use (in particular, cannabis and cocaine) and isolation (such as lockdowns) can cause us to revert into this child-like state, without us noticing. 

Psychosis is a state that can occur, and recur, in persons diagnosed with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Trauma and neurodegenerative conditions.  Note however that it is not a necessary condition for any of these.

Schizophrenia comprises a wide range of thought disorders, which ultimately affect an individual’s ability to share a reality with others.  Causes can be trauma, emotional or physical; drug use; stress; genetics.   

With neurofeedback training we aim to restore a healthy sense of self; flexibilise the social brain; and ameliorate comorbidities such as intrusive thoughts, mood disorders, focus and attention issues, paranoia and anxieties; and psychosis.  

Each person is different:  with a Kaiser Neuromap we assess individual vulnerabilities and train these with neurofeedback.  Personalised Brain Training enables the person to unfold their genius in a socially reciprocal manner.  

Neurofeedback is medication-free, non-invasive and evidence-based. 

Schizophrenia is an elusive term: its definition allows for wide subjective interpretation, and resembles almost an ‘other’ category for mental health disorders not elsewhere defined more strictly.  Whether overlap and/or comorbidity, the following addresses the phenomenon resulting from dysrhythmia of key Default Mode Network nodes and thus a disintegration of the neurological definition of ‘self’.  Labelling can have deleterious consequences for a person’s self-esteem, and it risks association with worse symptoms and manifestations than experienced.   

Neurofeedback can achieve fast and impressive results, as seen here comparing brain maps of a client with a schizophrenia diagnosis after one week of intensive neurofeedback training

In Schizophrenia, the formation of a neural basis for a ‘self’, the Default Mode Network, is impaired, as is its ability to anti-correlate with the Central Executive Network.  Key nodes of these networks are often dysrhythmic, impacting the ability to self-sooth and self-nurture.  

Thought disorders, delusions or hallucinations are signs of not engaging sufficiently with the outside world.  These have neural correlates which we can detect with a Kaiser Neuromap and then train with neurofeedback.   

Many other pathologies ensue, including trauma, mood dysregulation, sleep and focus issues, and other personality disorders are at risk of developing as the social brain breaks down. 

With neurofeedback, we aim to restore social functionality, launching the person back into a virtuous cycle of affirmation and productivity with others.  

Daniel Webster has done week-long intensives with clients, where substantial progress was made in reducing psychosis and trauma symptoms.  This was ascertainable with before and after Kaiser Neuromaps, corroborating positive functional connectivity changes.  These were confirmed cognitively by the clients and their families. 

Neurofeedback is a form of complementary therapy and works alongside medication and psychotherapy, as well as calm-inducing approaches aimed at re-socialisation and maximising of interpersonal function.  


The Process Explained

Step 1: Brain Map

A qEEG recording takes about 45minutes for a 20 minute recording.

A cap with 19 sensors is is fitted to our head and gels inserted to ensure connectivity.  The sensors only read – there is a tiny voltage on the surface of our head that these pick up.  The gels are easily washed out later.  This is also the last time we wear the cap (until a remap after ten sessions); training is done with single sensors. 

We analyse the data with Kaiser Neuromap software which gives us a unique view into character traits and vulnerabilities.  

Findings are presented in a separate one-hour conversation where we discuss the key elements.

Step 2: Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback process explained, illustrating real-time analysis of brain waves and feedback given

 We use a movie of choice as the feedback mechanism – our conscious mind engages with the film, and feedback is delivered by small changes in volume or picture size.  

Our pre-conscious mind adapts its behaviour to preserve the more comfortable volume and picture size, and learning occurs. 

Volume changes are slight, not stop-start, and the process is enjoyable. 

Key is that we are interested in the movie – our conscious mind is engaged with the content, which forms the reward, and our preconscious mind – without our conscious effort – changes its behaviour in response to the feedback.

Capturing the ultradian cycle with neurofeedback Personalised Brain Training using Kaiser Neuromap

A two hour training session allows us to do 90-110 minutes of neurofeedback training during which we can work on various brain sites. 

This captures an entire ultradian rhythm cycle and corresponds to the approximate duration of feature film movies.  

We can start with shorter sessions as appropriate, mainly with children. 

Ideally, we do two or more sessions per week to start with.  

We would expect to see responsiveness within the first few sessions and remap after twenty hours or about ten sessions.  

Generally, we would expect to doing twenty sessions over two months, though this can vary substantially. 

We can also accommodate intensives, where we do two sessions per day over a number of days, and have had good results with these.


Concussions lead to Brain Changes

The recent rugby player study by the Drake Foundation showed that 23% of players (10 out of 44) had axonal or diffuse vascular injury.  This contrasted with athletes in non-collision sports.  

Mild traumatic brain injuries are common in rugby, with an incidence rate of 20.4 per 1,000 player match hours (14.8 per 1000h in Australia).  

In addition to mTBI, repeated head impacts can lead to neurodegeneration that becomes progressive.  This increases the risk of dementia

Drake Foundation study on brain abnormalities in rugby players using diffusion tensor imaging and advanced MRI

Personalised Brain Training for TBI

Neurofeedback Training has been shown to improve cognitive ability.  A study found that this brain training made positive structural changes to white and gray matter.  

With a Kaiser Neuromap we can train the brain in a personalised manner.

Neurofeedback training improves cognitive ability and strengthens white and gray matter per Ghaziri Study 2013 "Neurofeedback Training induces Changes in White and Gray Matter"

Neurofeedback is a form of complementary therapy and should not be seen as a replacement for conventional medicine.  qEEG brain map-based neurofeedback training takes a more holistic approach to brain functioning, rather than just focusing on medical symptoms.  It is not intended as a form of diagnosis nor medical intervention nor medical advice per the disclaimer.

Brain Maps and Personalised Brain Training Explained

Brain Maps expose Individual Vulnerabilities

With a Kaiser Neuromap, we can identify character traits, vulnerabilities and strengths. 

Different brain areas and networks govern our behaviour.  For example, there are parts of our brain which control mood regulation; spatial distractibility; physiological arousal; our sense of self; self-critical thoughts; anger and emotional attachment; and there are various sources of anxiety.

A brain map shows us which brain areas are behaving immaturely, and thus expose us to vulnerabilities or mental health issues.

Rather than fitting people into categories – diagnosis – we can assess vulnerability to behaviour patterns.  Every brain is different.  A brain map provides a more granular approach to understanding our strengths and weaknesses.

Personalised Brain Training with Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback lets us train dysrythmic brain areas.  With sensors comfortably fitted to the brain areas we want to train, we detect brainwave patterns real-time while watching a movie.  When these patterns are inefficient, the volume drops momentarily.  This is the feedback we are giving our brain, short and instantaneously.  

The brain area we are training recognises this – while our conscious mind is focussed on the movie – and adjusts its behaviour to restore the normal volume.  With repetition, throughout a session, learning occurs.  

Meanwhile our conscious mind is solely focussed on the movie; the training process is passive in this sense.    

The drop in volume is subtle, so we continue to understand the flow of the movie.  No current or electrical stimulation is fed to the brain; sensors simply read brainwaves and the feedback is purely audio-visual.

Neurofeedback is preconscious brain training aimed at enhancing our mental, emotional and spiritual health

Neurofeedback trains our Pre-Conscious Mind


Rather than engaging the conscious mind, which slows us down, we are training preconscious processes

This equips us with the ability to live in the moment and attain our potential (if we have to resort to conscious control, we are not living in the moment).

We take a holistic approach to healthy brain self-regulation, rather than categorisation or diagnosis. 

Personalised Brain Training is an advanced qEEG brain map-based approach to neurofeedback training developed by the founders of the field.  Taking Othmer Method / ILF training methods further, it employs Default Network Training protocols as developed by David Kaiser.

Neurofeedback is Evidence-based

Neurofeedback training is an evidence-based complementary therapy.  Its efficacy was first demonstrated some 50 years ago, and with advances in technology, training protocols have become more efficient and the feedback method – watching movies – thoroughly enjoyable. 

Neurofeedback is evidence-based.  It’s first application was discovered in 1971 when it was used to resolve intractable epilepsy. 

There are over 2,000 peer-reviewed research reports on PubMed demonstrating efficacy across a number of pathologies. 

In the US, it is an accepted complementary treatment for many challenges. 

Neurofeedback is evidence-based complementary therapy with over 2000 PubMed peer-reviewed research reports